United Nations impose sanction on Iran In 2006 as they were suspected by nuclear production similar sanctions were imposed by USA and European Union primarily imposed sanction on Iran’s oil business, weapons sales and financial transaction which hurt Iran’s economy severely. Economy was severely hurt due to sanctions imposed by various unions it was a time for them to come under a long-term nuclear program with world’s powerful nation like USA, UK, France, China Russia and Germany under a long-term nuclear program called as Joint comprehensive plan of action (JCPOA). This historic agreement was signed in July 2015 between Iran and worlds powerful nation like USA, UK, FRANCE, China, Russia and Germany which are they popularly known P5+1. This deal was signed at a time when Barack Obama was president of USA and Joe Biden was vice president of USA. This deal restricts Iran ability to develop nuclear weapons in exchange of lifting economic sanctions against the Iran. Also Iran needs to reduce its Uranium production by two third and also Iran agreed to give access to inspectors from International Atomic Energy Agency (IEAE) to its nuclear facility.
AFTER THE DEAL AND WHY DONALD TRUMP WITHDREW FROM JCPOA-
After the deal Iran drastically reduce the production of Uranium and the sanction imposed by United Nations, USA and European Union were lifted . Under this deal Iran gain access to more than 100 billion dollars in assets frozen overseas and was able to resume selling oil on international market using global financial system of trade. However in 2018 Donald Trump the president of United States of America withdrew from the deal stating that Iran has breached the nuclear activity beyond the limit(3.67%) sanctioned in 2015 deal of nuclear also Trump blamed Iran that they are supporting terrorist group like Hamas and Hezbollah. In this conflict USA made a Drone Strike at Baghdad airport where Major General Qassem Soleimani was killed. Major General Qassem Soleimani was the architect of Iran’s military expansion in West Asia.
After this Iran completely withdrawn from joint comprehensive plan of action deal and all the restrictions and limitations imposed on uranium production used to make nuclear weapons were lifted.
RECENT HAPPENINGS ABOUT NEGOTIATION
Iran in continuing with their Uranium rich nuclear production allaying the western concerns by stating that the production of nuclear is only for the purpose of “PEACE” and not for production of any Atomic bomb. Negotiation to bring USA and IRAN back into the deal begins in Vienna. Though an American diplomat is present in Vienna, they are not meeting directly with Iran. Instead, diplomats from other countries (USA, UK, France, China, Russia and Germany and the European Union) mediate between the two sides. Iran is ready for full compliance to the nuclear deal but USA should drop all the sanctions imposed on Iran due to which Iran’s economy is hindered. But USA top Diplomat Antony Blinken said this deal needs to be renegotiate as breaching of nuclear deal was not only the reason for USA to withdrew from the deal there were another reasons like Iran’s ballistic missile programme, supporting the rebels like Hamas and Hezbollah and human rights violation . Also on other hand allies of USA like Israel and Saudi Arabia rejects to get into any deal with Iran as they have accused Iran for secretly building up Nuclear Weapon. Also after the attack on Iran’s nuclear facilities at Natanz which they considered to be a conspiracy by Israel, Iran increase the Uranium Production to 60% from earlier 20% for the purpose of producing radiopharmaceuticals.
Indirect talks are being held between USA and Iran as Iran refuse to meet directly. Iran’s top negotiator(Deputy Foreign Minister) Abbas Araghchi said ” a “new understanding” appears to be forming between all sides as the results of the job done by two working groups – one to determine what sanctions the US needs to lift, and one to determine what nuclear measures Iran needs to take were reviewed. There is now a shared view of the end goal between all sides and the path that needs to be taken is a bit better known”. Also for the basis of final agreement Iran has come up with a draft of sanction and lifting in nuclear deal. Continuing with the negotiation, Nuclear experts from Iran are also in talks with Global Nuclear Watchdog (IAEA) shortly before the Joint Commission meeting on 20th April. IEAE has also started talks with Iran and asked Iran to give explanation about uranium traces found in undeclared places in Iran and if Iran fail to do so that might hurt the progress to nuclear deal and then the signatories from Europe might push it to the next IEAE board meet in June. Total four indirect talks have being held till now. In the fourth indirect talk mediated by UK, German, France, Russia and the European Union-USA stated that the nuclear deal can be revived before the Presidential Election in June in Iran if Iran government takes proper political decision by giving the Nuclear deal a prior importance. USA also wants peace between them and wants to accelerate the pace of reviving the deal to reach final agreement in upcoming weeks.
- – Chinmay Bambarkar
- GLC, Mumbai